Nezamfar, H., Salehi, S., Higger, M., & Erdogmus, D. (2018). Code-VEP vs. eye tracking: A comparison study. Brain Sciences, 8, 130. DOI: 10.3390/brainsci8070130.
Abstract: Even with state-of-the-art techniques there are individuals whose paralysis prevents them from communicating with others. Brain-Computer-Interfaces (BCI) aim to utilize brain waves to construct a voice for those whose needs remain unmet. In this paper we compare the efficacy of a BCI input signal, code-VEP via Electroencephalography, against eye gaze tracking, among the most popular modalities used. These results, on healthy individuals without paralysis, suggest that while eye tracking works well for some, it does not work well or at all for others; the latter group includes individuals with corrected vision or those who squint their eyes unintentionally while focusing on a task. It is also evident that the performance of the interface is more sensitive to head/body movements when eye tracking is used as the input modality, compared to using c-VEP. Sensitivity to head/body movement could be better in eye tracking systems which are tracking the head or mounted on the face and are designed specifically as assistive devices. The sample interface developed for this assessment has the same reaction time when driven with c-VEP or with eye tracking; approximately 0.5⁻1 second is needed to make a selection among the four options simultaneously presented. Factors, such as system reaction time and robustness play a crucial role in participant preferences.